Human immunodeficiency virus is a slowly – replicating retrovirus. It causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a situation in people wherein progressive failure of the immune system permits life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. AIDS is the late stage of HIV an infection, when an individual's immune system is severely broken and has issue preventing ailments and sure cancers. HIV assessments are used to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in serum, saliva or urine. Such assessments inform you if you’re contaminated with HIV or not. In keeping with a tough estimate given by the World Well being Group (WHO), as of 2000, insufficient blood screening had been resolved in 1 million new HIV infections worldwide.
1 in four new HIV infections happens in youth aged between 13-24 years, in keeping with CDC.
There are two kinds of HIV virus, the HIV-1 and the HIV-2. Untitled in any other case, in the US, the time period "HIV" primarily refers back to the HIV-1. HIV-2 infections are predominately present in Africa.
Each HIV-1 and HIV-2 works by infecting and decreasing the degrees of the CD4 + T cells, cells that are crucial to assist the physique combat ailments. When CD4 + T cell numbers decline beneath a crucial stage, the physique turns into progressively extra vulnerable to opportunistic infections. HIV-1 and HIV-2 seem to package deal their RNA otherwise. Checks point out that HIV-1 is healthier capable of mutate (HIV-1 an infection progresses to AIDS quicker than HIV-2 an infection and is accountable for almost all of world infections).
HIV is unfold by blood and genital fluids, together with pre-seminal fluids and semen or breast milk. One can turn into contaminated with HIV by partaking in unprotected intercourse or different kinds of sexual habits with an HIV-positive particular person, or by sharing needles, syringes or different injection gear with somebody who’s contaminated with HIV.
It usually takes a short while to get correct outcomes from an HIV check. It is because the blood assessments that you just take usually are not testing for the presence of HIV itself in your blood however are as an alternative testing for the antibodies that your physique creates in an try and combat the virus. Many HIV-positive persons are unaware that they’re contaminated with the virus.
The period of time required for antibodies to point out up on HIV assessments is very variable, as they’ll present up as early as two weeks or as late as six months. Throughout that interval, you’ll be able to check HIV damaging regardless that you’re contaminated with the virus. You may nonetheless catch HIV from somebody who’s within the window interval. Since donors are unaware of their infections, donated blood and blood merchandise utilized in drugs are routinely checked for the HIV virus.
Each you and your accomplice ought to get examined for HIV and know your standing earlier than having intercourse for the primary time. Pregnant girls ought to be positively examined throughout every being pregnant. If the mom is contaminated with HIV, care ought to be taken of minimizing the prospect of passing the virus to the infant. Medicines can be found at this time, which was taken correctly throughout being pregnant and is definitely decrease the chance of passing the HIV virus to the infant.
Essentially the most generally used HIV check is a blood check. Blood will first be examined utilizing the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) check. If antibodies to HIV are current within the serum, they might bind to those HIV antigens.
ELISA outcomes are reported as a quantity. If ELISA check is optimistic, the outcomes shall be confirmed utilizing the Western Blot check, which assessments just for HIV antibodies. In the US such ELISA outcomes usually are not reported as 'positives', except confirmed by a Western Blot check. Newer HIV assessments can detect HIV antibodies in mouth fluids (not saliva), a scrapping from contained in the mouth or urine. In 2012, the FDA authorized the primary "in-home" HIV check. It makes use of a mouth swab and present ends in 30-40 minutes. Any optimistic check consequence ought to be confirmed by a lab utilizing the Western Blot.
After a damaging sixth-month check, it is strongly recommended that people get one last verify carried out six months later to substantiate the outcomes. If the outcomes are nonetheless damaging, it’s nearly sure that the particular person just isn’t contaminated with HIV.
HIV is much like different viruses, akin to those who trigger chilly and flu, with one necessary distinction – the human physique can’t do away with HIV. Meaning. If you happen to get HIV, you get it for LIFE.
Proper now we’re at a crucial second within the combat towards HIV / AIDS.
AIDS was a dying sentence, however now greater than eight million persons are on life-saving remedy. By 2015, with the size up of remedy and prevention for HIV, we might see the start of the tip of AIDS.